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Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene

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Prof. Dr. med. Georg Häcker

Telefon Labor+49 761 203-5363
Telefon Sekretariat+49 761 203-6532
Fax+49 761 203-6651


1983 Allgemeine Hochschulreife
1990 Medizinisches Staatsexamen
1991 Promotion zum Dr. med., Universität Ulm
1992Approbation als Arzt
1993-1995 Stipendiat der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft am Walter und Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research, Melbourne, Australien
1995Research Officer am Walter and Eliza Hall Institute
1996-1998Wissenschaftlicher Angestellter / Assistenzarzt, Inst. f. Med. Mikrobiologie der TUM
1998 Habilitation und Venia legendi für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Immunologie, Fakultät für Medizin der TUM
1998-2000Privatdozent, Oberarzt am Inst. f. Med. Mikrobiologie der TUM
2000-2009C3-Professor / Extraordinarius, Oberarzt am Inst. f. Med. Mikrobiologie der TUM
2002Facharzt für Mikrobiologie und Infektionsepidemiologie, Bayerische Landesärztekammer
07/2009 Ärztlicher Direktor der Abteilung Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg


Name Position Telefon E-Mail
Prof. Georg Häcker AG-Leiter 203- 6531 georg.haecker@uniklinik-freiburg.de
Dr. rer. nat. Arnim Weber Wiss. Angestellter 203- 5362 arnim.weber@uniklinik-freiburg.de
Dr. Aladin Haimovici Wiss. Angestellter 203- 6522 aladin.haimovici@uniklinik-freiburg.de
Dr. Collins Waguia Kontchou Wiss. Angestellter 203- 5358 collins.kontchou@uniklinik-freiburg.de
Dr. Aristomenis Roukounakis Wiss. Angestellter 203- 6546 aristomenis.roukounakis@uniklinik-freiburg.de
Dominik Brokatzky Biol. Doktorand 203- 6552 dominik.brokatzky@uniklinik-freiburg.de
Constanze Kurschat Biol. Doktorandin 203- 5358 constanze.kurschat@uniklinik-freiburg.de
Svenja Barth Biol. Doktorandin 203- 6546 svenja.barth@uniklinik-freiburg.de
Julia Gregg Pharmazeut. Doktorandin 203- 5358 julia.gregg@uniklinik-freiburg.de
Arlena Metz BTA 203- 5358 arlena.metz@uniklinik-freiburg.de
Bianca Eisele BTA 203- 6546 bianca.eisele@uniklinik-freiburg.de
Benedikt Dörflinger Med. Doktorand 203- 5358 benedikt.doerflinger@uniklinik-freiburg.de
Christoph Höfer Med. Doktorand 203- 5358 christoph.hoefer@uniklinik-freiburg.de


  • Pettengill M, Marques-da-Silva C, Avila M, d'Arc dos Santos Oliveira S, Lam V, Ollawa I, Abdul Sater A, Coutinho-Silva R, Häcker G and Ojcius D (2012) Reversible Inhibition of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Epithelial Cells Due to Stimulation of P2X4 Receptors. Infect Immun, 80(12):4232-8
  • Vince JE, Wong WWL, Gentle I, Lawlor KE, Allam R, O’Reilly L, Mason K, Gross O, Guarda G, Castillo, R., Häcker, G., Silke, J. and Tschopp, J. (2012) Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins limit IL-1 activation Immunity, 6(2):215-27
  • Wilfling F, Weber A, Potthoff S, Vögtle FN, Meisinger C, Paschen SA* and Häcker G* (2012) BH3-only proteins are tail-anchored in the outer mitochondrial membrane and can initiate the activation of Bax. Cell Death Diff., 19(8):1328-36. * Equal contribution
  • Christian JG, Heymann J, Paschen SA, Vier J, Schauenburg L, Rupp J, Meyer TF, Häcker G*, ** and Heuer D* (2011) Targeting of a chlamydial protease impedes intracellular bacterial growth. PLoS Pathogens, 7(9):e1002283.. * Equal contribution. **, Corresponding author.
  • Feoktistova S, Geserick P, Kellert B, Panayotova Dimitrova D, Langlais C, Hupe M, Cain K, MacFarlane M, Häcker G and Leverkus M (2011) cIAPs block Ripoptosome formation, a RIP1/caspase 8 containing intracellular cell death complex differentially regulated by cFLIP isoforms. Mol. Cell, 43(3):449-63
  • Kirschnek S, Vier J, Gautam S, Frankenberg T, Rangelova S, Eitz-Ferrer P, Grespi F, Ottina E, Villunger A, Häcker H and Häcker G (2011) Molecular analysis of neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis reveals a strong role for the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Noxa. Cell Death Diff., 18(11):1805-14
  • Eitz Ferrer P, Potthoff S, Kirschnek S, Gasteiger G, Kastenmüller W, Ludwig H, Paschen S, Villunger A, Sutter G, Drexler I and Häcker G (2011) Induction of Noxa-mediated apoptosis by Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara depends on viral recognition by cytosolic helicases, leading to IRF-3/IFN-β-dependent induction of pro-apoptotic Noxa. PLoS Path., 7(6):e1002083
  • Christian JG, Vier J, Paschen SA and Häcker G (2010) Cleavage of the NF-kB-family protein p65/RelA by the chlamydial protease chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) impairs pro-inflammatory signalling in cells Infected with chlamydiae. J Biol Chem., 285(53):41320-7
  • von Bubnoff D, Scheler M, Wilms H, Wenzel J, von Bubnoff N, Häcker G, Schultze J, Popov A, Racz P, Bieber T, and Wickenhauser C (2011) Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-expressing myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages in infectious and non-infectious cutaneous granulomas J Am Acad Dermatol, 65(4):819-32
  • Grespi F, Soratroi C, Krumschnabel G, Sohm B, Ploner C, Geley S, Hengst L, Häcker G and Villunger A (2010) BH3-only protein Bmf mediates apoptosis upon inhibition of CAP-dependent protein synthesis. Cell Death Diff, 17(11):1672-83
  • Zall H, Weber A, Besch R, Zantl N and Häcker G (2010) Chemotherapeutic drugs sensitize human renal cell carcinoma cells to ABT-737 by a mechanism involving the Noxa-dependent inactivation of Mcl-1 or A1. Molecular Cancer; 9(1):164
  • Wöhrl B, Klein M, Rupprecht TA, Schmetzer H, Angele B, Häcker H, Häcker G, Pfister HW, Koedel U (2010) CXCL16 contributes to neutrophil recruitment to the CSF in pneumococcal meningitis. J Infect Dis 202(9):1389-96
  • Haider S, Wagner M, Schmid MC, Sixt BS, Christian JG, Häcker G, Pichler P, Müller A, Baranyi C, Toenshoff ER, Montanaro J, Horn M (2010) Raman microspectroscopy reveals long-term extracellular activity of chlamydiae. Mol Microbiol, 77(3):687-700
  • Gruber A, Cannarile MA, Cheminay C, Ried C, Marconi P, Häcker G, Brocker T. (2010) Parenchymal cells critically curtail cytotoxic T cell responses by inducing Bim-mediated apoptosis. Eur J Immunol. 40(4):966-75
  • Weber A, Kirejczyk Z, Besch R, Potthoff S, Leverkus M and Häcker G. (2010) Pro-apoptotic signalling through Toll-like receptor 3 involves TRIF-dependent activation of caspase-8 and is under the control of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins in melanoma cells. Cell Death Diff, 17(6):942-51
  • Hippe D, Weber A, Zhou L, Chang DC, Häcker G., Lüder CG. (2009) Toxoplasma gondii infection confers resistance against BimS-induced apoptosis by preventing the activation and mitochondrial targeting of pro-apoptotic Bax. J Cell Sci., 122:3511-21
  • Abdul-Sater AA, Koo E, Häcker G, Ojcius DM. (2009) Inflammasome-dependent caspase-1 activation in cervical epithelial cells stimulates growth of the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. J Biol Chem., 284:26789-96.
  • Besch R, Poeck H, Hohenauer T, Senft D, Häcker G, Berking C, Hornung V, Endres S, Ruzicka T, Rothenfusser S and Hartmann G. Proapoptotic signalling by RIG-I and MDA-5 results in tumor-specific apoptosis independent of type I interferons in melanoma. J Clin Invest.,119(8):2399-411
  • Brenk M, Scheler M, Koch S, Neumann J, Takikawa O, Häcker G, Bieber T and von Bubnoff D. (2009) Tryptophan deprivation induces inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4 on dendritic cells favoring the induction of human CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells J Immunol., 183(1):145-54
  • Koedel U, Frankenberg T, Kirschnek S, Obermaier B, Häcker H, Paul, R and Häcker G. (2009) Apoptosis is essential for neutrophil functional shutdown and determines tissue damage in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. PLoS Pathogens, May;5(5):e1000461.
  • Lohmann C, Muschweckh A, Kirschnek S, Jennen L, Wagner H.and Häcker G.(2009) Induction of tumor cell apoptosis or necrosis by conditional expression of cell death proteins: analysis of cell death pathways and in vitro immune stimulatory potential. J Immunol., 182(8):4538-46.
  • Weber A, Kirejczyk Z, Potthoff S, Ploner C and Häcker G. (2009) Endogenous Noxa determines the strong pro-apoptotic synergism of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 with chemotherapeutic agents in human melanoma cells. Transl. Oncology, 2(2):73-83.
  • Poeck H, Besch R, Maihoefer C, Renn M, Tormo D, Morskaya SS, Kirschnek S, Gaffal E, Landsberg J, Hellmuth J, Schmidt A, Anz D, Bscheider M, Schwerd T, Berking C, Bourquin C, Kalinke U, Kremmer E, Kato H, Akira S, Meyers R, Häcker G, Neuenhahn M, Busch D, Ruland J, Rothenfusser S, Prinz M, Hornung V, Endres S, Tüting T, Hartmann G. (2008) 5’-triphosphate-siRNA: turning gene silencing and Rig-1 activation against melanoma. Nat Med;14(11):1256-63
  • Ying S, Pettengill M, Latham ER, Walch A, Ojcius DM, Häcker G. (2008) Premature apoptosis of Chlamydia-infected cells disrupts chlamydial development. J Infect Dis; 198(10):1536-44
  • Paschen S, Christian JG, Vier J, Schmidt F, Walch A, Ojcius DM and Häcker G. (2008) Cytopathicity of Chlamydia infection can be largely reproduced by expressing a single chlamydial gene, Chlamydial Protease-like Activity Factor. J Cell Biol, 182(1):117-27
  • Rangelova S, Kirschnek S, Strasser A and Häcker G. (2008) FADD and the NF-B Member Bcl-3 Regulate Complementary Pathways to T Cell Survival and Proliferation. Immunology 125(4):549-57.
  • Frankenberg T, Kirschnek S and Häcker G. (2008) Phagocytosis-induced apoptosis of macrophages is linked to uptake, killing and degradation of bacteria. European Journal of Immunology, 38(1):204-15.
  • Ying S, Christian JG, Paschen SA and Häcker G. (2008) Chlamydia trachomatis can protect host cells against apoptosis in the absence of cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins and Mcl-1. Microbes and Infection, 10(1):97-101.
  • Fuchs M, Hermannstädter C, Haller F, Häcker G, Hutzler P, Höfler H and Luber B. (2008) Caspase-mediated cleavage of tumor-derived mutant E-cadherin during cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Exp Cell Res, 314(1):153-63
  • Ying S and Häcker G. (2007) Apoptosis induced by direct triggering of mitochondrial apoptosis proceeds in the near-absence of some apoptotic markers. Apoptosis, 12(11):2003-11.
  • Bauer A, Kirschnek S and Häcker G. (2007) Inhibition of apoptosis can be accompanied by increased Bim levels in T lymphocytes and neutrophil granulocytes (Letter) Cell Death and Differentiation, 14(9):1714-6.
  • Weber A, Paschen SA, Heger K, Wilfling F, Frankenberg T, Bauerschmitt H, Seiffert BM, Kirschnek S, Wagner H and Häcker G. BimS Induced Apoptosis Requires Mitochondrial Localization but not Interaction with Anti-Apoptotic Bcl-2 Proteins. J Cell Biol. 177(4):625-36 (2007).
  • Zantl N, Weirich G, Hilpert C, Seiffert B, Fischer SF, Gillissen B, Daniel P T and Häcker G. Low expression of the BH3-only protein Bim is a determinant of apoptosis resistance in renal cell carcinoma. Oncogene, May 2007 (Epub ahead of print).
  • Erlacher M, Labi V, Manzl C, Böck G, Tzankov A, Häcker G, Michalak E, Strasser A and Villunger A. (2006) Bim is the rate-limiting BH3-only protein mediating cell death during lymphocyte development but cooperates with PUMA in cytokine-deprivation and stress-induced apoptosis. J Exp Med, 203:2939-51.
  • Häcker G, Suttner K, Harada H and Kirschnek S. (2006) TLR-dependent Bim phosphorylation in macrophages is mediated by ERK and is connected to proteasomal degradation of the protein. Int Immunol, 18:1749-57.
  • Ying S, Fischer SF, Conte D, Paschen SA, Ojcius DM and Häcker G. (2006) Characterization of Host Cell Death Induced by Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect Immun, 74:6057-66
  • Bauer A, Villunger A, Labi V, Fischer SF, Erlacher M, Strasser A, Wagner H, Schmid RM and Häcker G. (2006) The NF-B regulator Bcl-3 and the BH3-only proteins Bim and Puma control the death of activated T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 103:10979-84.
  • You H, Pellegrini M, Tsuchihara Y, Yamamoto K, Häcker G, Erlacher M, Villunger A and Mak TW. (2006) FOXO3a-dependent regulation of Puma in response to cytokine/growth factor withdrawal. J Exp Med, 203(7):1657-1663.
  • Keller P, Schaumburg F, Fischer S, Häcker G, Groß U, and Lüde, CG (2006) Direct inhibition of cytochrome c-induced caspase activation in vitro by Toxoplasma gondii reveals novel mechanisms of interference with host cell apoptosis. FEMS Microbiol Letters, 258(2):312-319.
  • Verbeke P, Stahl L, Ying S, Hansen J, Häcker G, Darville T and Ojcius DM (2006) AKT Phosphorylation and Recruitment of BAD by the Chlamydia Vacuole Correlate With Infection-Induced Resistance to Apoptosis. PLoS Pathogens, e45.
  • Häcker H, Redecke V, Blagoev B, Kratchmarova I, Wang G, Kamps MP, Saha SK, Oganesyan G, Raz E, Wagner H, Häcker G, Mann M, Cheng G and Karin M. (2006) Specificity in TLR Signaling: Activation of the Interferon Response Depends on TRAF3. Nature, 439:204-207.
  • Fischer SF, Vier J, Müller-Thomas C and Häcker G. (2006) Molecular events in the induction of apoptosis by Legionella pneumophila in human cells. Microbe Infect, 8:662-669.
  • Fischer SF, Ludwig H, Holzapfel J, Chen L, Huang DC, Sutter G and Häcker G (2006) The early proteins E3L and F1L determine the molecular balance of apoptosis inhibition and induction by Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara. Cell Death and Differentiation, 13:109-118.
  • Ying S, Seiffert BM, Häcker G and Fischer SF. Broad Degradation of Pro-Apoptotic BH3-only Proteins During Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect. Immun.,73:1399-1403.
  • Kirschnek S, Ying S, Fischer SF, Häcker H, Villunger A, Hochrein H and Häcker G. (2005) Phagocytosis-induced apoptosis in macrophages is mediated by up-regulation and activation of the BH3-only protein Bim. J Immunol., 174:671-679.
  • Fischer SF, Rehm M, Bauer A, Höfling F, Kirschnek S, Rutz M, Bauer S, Wagner H and Häcker G. (2005) Toll-like receptor 9-signaling can sensitise fibroblasts for apoptosis. Immunol. Letters, 97:115-122.
  • Chaneva S, Schneider G, Siegmund D, Wajant H, Mages J and Häcker G. (2004) Enhanced Basal AP-1-Activity and Deregulation of Numerous Genes in T Cells Transgenic for a Dominant Interfering Mutant of FADD/MORT1. Eur J Immunol., 34:3006-15.
  • Fischer SF, Vier J, Kirschnek S, Klos A, Hess S, Ying S and Häcker G. (2004) Chlamydia inhibit host cell apoptosis by degradation of pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins. J Exp Med., 200:905-16.
  • Kreuz S, Siegmund D, Rumpf JJ, Samel D, Leverkus M, Janssen O, Häcker G, Dittrich-Breiholz O, Kracht M, Scheurich P and Wajant H (2004) NF. B activation by Fas is mediated through FADD, Caspase-8 and RIP and is inhibited by FLIP. J Cell Biol., 166:369-80.
  • Ruckdeschel K, Pfaffinger G, Haase R, Sing A, Weighard H, Häcker G, Holzmann H and Heesemann J. (2004) Signaling of apoptosis through toll-like receptors critically involves Toll/IL-1 receptor domain containing adapter inducing IFN- but not myeloid differentiation factor 88 in bacteria-infected murine macrophages. J. Immunol., 173:3320-3328.
  • von Bubnoff D, Bausinger H, Matz H, Koch S, Häcker G, Takikawa O, Bieber T, Hanau D and de la Salle H. (2004) Human epidermal langerhans cells express the immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. J. Invest. Dermatol. 123:298-304.
  • Schliep S, Decker T, Schneller F, Wagner H and Häcker G. (2004) Functional Evaluation of the Role of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Exp. Hematol. 32:556-562.
  • Kirschnek S, Scheffel J, Heinzmann U and Häcker G. (2004) Necrosis-like cell death induced by bacteria in mouse macrophages. Eur. J. Immunol. 34:1461-71.
  • Fischer S, Harlander T, Vier J and Häcker G. (2004) Protection against CD95-induced apoptosis by chlamydial infection at a mitochondrial step. Infect. Immun,72:1107-15.
  • Vier J, Gerhard M, Fürmann C, Wagner H and Häcker G. (2004) Acceleration of CD95-Induced Caspase-8-Activation by Uncoupling of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation. Mol. Immunol, 40: 661-670.

  • Häcker G, Borner C. (2011) Preface to Mitochondria: The deadly organelle. Biochim Biophys Acta.,1813:507
  • Häcker G. (2009) Introduction: the various deaths a cell can die, and their use in microbial infections. Microbes Infect., 11(13):1047-9.
  • Häcker G. Microbial inhibitors of apoptosis. In Encyclopaedia of Life Sciences.John Wiley a Sons, Ltd: Chichester
  • Paschen S, Weber A and Häcker G. (2007) Mitochondrial protein import: a matter of death? Cell Cycle, 6(20):2434-9.
  • Häcker G and Paschen SA. (2007) Therapeutic targets in the mitochondrial pathway. Expert Opinion in Drug Development, 11(4):515-26.
  • Häcker G and Weber A. (2007) BH3-only Proteins Trigger Cytochrome c-Release, But How? Arch Biochem Biophys, 462(2):150-5.
  • Ying S, Pettengill M, Ojcius DM and Häcker G. (2007) Host-Cell Survival and Death During Chlamydia Infection. Current Immunology Reviews, 3(1):31-40.
  • Häcker G, Bauer A and Villunger A. (2006) Apoptosis in Activated T Cells – What Are the Triggers, and What the Signal Transducers? Cell Cycle, 5:2421-4.
  • Häcker G, Kirschnek S and Fischer SF. (2006) Apoptosis in infectious disease: how bacteria interfere with the apoptotic apparatus. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 195:11-19.
  • Häcker, G. (2004). Fas – activation, development and homeostasis of T cells. In Fas Signaling (edited by Harald Wajant), Eurekah Press.



Life of a multi-cellular organism is determined by interactions between its cells and interactions of these cells with outside factors. In this staggering complexity we focus on a few aspects: Cell death: we are particularly interested in apoptosis as one response the cell has to respond to changes in the microenvironment. We know a lot about apoptosis but there is also a lot we don’t know, which is obviously what we are trying to learn. We use a number of cellular systems and molecular situations to understand how apoptosis is initiated and implemented in mammalian cells. A more detailed description of what we are doing at the moment is given here

Neutrophil granulocytes (neutrophils) are the first professional line of immune reaction and defence in most forms of infection (especially but not exclusively in infections with pyogenic bacteria): invading microorganisms are typically sensed by non-professional immune cells (for instance keratinocytes in the skin) and by tissue resident myeloid cells (such as macrophages). This detection causes them to secrete chemoattractants that cause neutrophils to go from the blood into the infected tissues. In this part of our work we focus mainly on neutrophils (with some attention given also to other immune cells). Neutrophils are relatively short-lived outside tissues and not easy to work with. We use mostly a system where we differentiate mouse neutrophils from progenitor cells and are studying signals determining neutrophil fate as well as signal implementation in the cells. We address questions of survival, differentiation and neutrophil contribution to immune reactions. More is given here.

Chlamydial infections, especially genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are a problem whose huge dimensions have only recently started to become apparent. In probably any population of young, sexually active individuals (that is people who do not engage in particularly risky behaviour) at any time there are about 5 % (one in 20) actively infected with C. trachomatis. The acute infection is typically very mild and often (especially in women) not even noticed. The problem is that the infection can stay on for long times and, in women, ascend into the pelvic regions. One of the worst possibilities is unfortunately not uncommon, namely that the prolonged infection causes infertility: the woman cannot conceive children the natural way. Chlamydia has a fascinatingly sophisticated way of growing inside human cells. We are particularly interested in a number of biological aspects of the infection: disturbance of apoptosis by Chlamydia, chlamydial proteolysis in the host cell (which we believe is required for nutrient acquisition by the bacteria), and Chlamydia-induced inflammation. Here you will find more details.

Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene

Hermann-Herder-Str. 11
D-79104 Freiburg

Ärztlicher Direktor
Prof. Dr. Georg Häcker
E-mail: georg.haecker@uniklinik-freiburg.de

Kerstin Jost
Telefon: 0761 203-6532
Telefax: 0761 203-6651
E-mail: kerstin.jost@uniklinik-freiburg.de

Jutta Schneeberger
Telefon: 0761 203-6510
Telefax: 0761 203-6562

Bestellung von Transportmedien
für H. pylori Resistenzbestimmungen

Telefon: 0761 203-6516
Telefax: 0761 203-6562